Monday, September 18, 2017

Radiation and Life

Radiation and Life - World Nuclear Association

"Life on earth has developed with an ever present background of radiation. It is not something new, invented by the wit of man: radiation has always been there."
-Eric J Hall, Professor of Radiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, in his book "Radiation and Life".

Contents: Unstable Atoms, Atomic Decay, Half-life, Types of Ionizing radiation, Measuring Ionizing Radiation, What are the health risks from ionizing radiation?, Man-made Radiation, Protection from Radiation, Standards and Regulations, Understanding Radiation, Related Information.

Wednesday, September 6, 2017

How do Corals Reproduce?

Corals can reproduce asexually and sexually. Coral reproductive methods vary according to the species. Some species, such as brain and star corals, are hermaphrodites, meaning they produce both sperm and eggs at the same time. Other corals, such as elkhorn and boulder corals, are gonochoric, meaning that they produce single-sex colonies. In these species, all of the polyps in one colony produce only sperm, and all of the polyps in another colony produce only eggs.
Coral larvae are formed in two different ways. The larvae are either fertilized within the body of a polyp or fertilized outside of the polyp’s body in the water. Fertilization of an egg within the body of a coral polyp is achieved from sperm that is released through the mouth of another polyp. The sperm and egg merge and form a planula larva, which matures inside the body of its mother. When the larva is ready, it gets spit out into the water through the mouth of its mother.
Other species of coral reproduce by ejecting large quantities of eggs and sperm into the surrounding water. When this happens, the eggs and sperm fertilize in the water. This process is called coral spawning. In some areas, mass coral spawning events occur on one particular night per year and scientists can predict exactly when this will happen. Trillions of eggs and sperm are simultaneously released into the water in one of the most astounding acts of synchronicity in the natural world!
Once in the sea, larvae are naturally attracted to the light. They swim to the surface of the ocean, where they remain for days or even weeks. If predators do not eat the larvae during this time, they fall back to the ocean floor and attach themselves to a hard surface. An attached planula metamorphasizes into a coral polyp and begins to grow—dividing itself in half and making exact genetic copies of itself. As more and more polyps are added, a coral colony develops. Eventually the coral colony becomes mature, begins reproducing, and the cycle of life continues. 

Thursday, July 27, 2017

How do Jet Pumps Work?



Jet pumps are also called ejector pumps. They are devices capable of handling and transporting all forms of motive fluid including gas, steam, or liquid. They can be considered mixers or circulators, since the intake combines multiple fluid sources. Multiple inlets are used to draw in a constant stream of fluid, using pressure to create lift through suction. The combination of intake pressure and velocity of the liquid or gas jets the media up from a well, tank, or pit through the pump to the discharge point.

Jet pumps are less efficient than typical centrifugal pumps due to such factors as friction loss, but may be more efficient when working with combined media that includes gases and in variable well conditions where the surface characteristics involve turbulence.

Jet pumps are centrifugal pumps with an ejector (venturi nozzle) attached at the discharge outlet. They function based upon the Venturi effect of Bernoulli's principle - utilizing constriction to reduce pressure and provide suction. After the pump is primed, a motive fluid is pumped through a standard centrifugal pump and enters an ejector. At the throat of the converging section of the ejector, the pressurized fluid is ejected at high velocity. This creates a low pressure (vacuum) at the throat, drawing the target fluid (from a well or other source) up into the nozzle.

Jet pumps consist of three sections: a centrifugal pump, a jet ejector package, and a foot valve.

The centrifugal pump generates the force which circulates the motive fluid through the ejector, typically using an impeller powered by a motor.

The jet ejector package (the nozzle, venturi, and various connections) is often separate from the pump before installation. Ejector components are carefully engineered to match the flow rate of a specific pump. During installation, it is important to read the ejector package instructions and set the package up correctly for the specific horsepower of the pump.

The foot valve is the section connected to the well or target resevoir. It receives fluid into the system and feeds the pump, filters debris and sediment from entering the system, and maintains the pump prime, preventing backflow.

Types

There are four main types of jet pumps, which vary based on application and size.

1. Deep well jet pumps are used in high volume applications, such as oil wells, which range from 800-15,000 feet in depth. The ejectors in these pumps are put down the well.
2. Shallow well pumps are used in applications where the media is close to the surface, such as residential wells. The ejectors in these pumps are bolted to the nose of the pump.
3. Convertible jet pumps are "convertible", meaning they can be set up to be used for either deep or shallow well applications.
4. Miniature jet pumps are used for smaller (typically commercial) applications, such as aquariums.

Wednesday, May 10, 2017

Juicing a Pomegranate



Pomegranate is a thick skinned super seedy fruit, with a brilliant red hue which is now touted as a wonder fruit by scientific researchers. The name pomegranate derives from the French word “pomegranate” or seeded apple. They are believed to have originated in Iran and brought to Egypt in 1600 BC, where it was not only revered as an important food source but was also widely used for its medicinal value. It was held in high esteem even during those times, as it is evident by their depiction in Egyptian paintings and tombs. Inspired by the abundance of jewel toned seeds within the bright red rind, pomegranate is considered to be a symbol of fertility and prosperity in some cultures.

Pomegranate Juice – A Super food For Good Skin, Hair And Health:

Drinking pomegranate juice benefits our health and skin in a myriad of ways. It is one of the few fruits whose juice is as beneficial as the fruit itself.  This is because the peel contains the maximum amount of antioxidants which are released in abundance when the fruit is squeezed while juicing. It is currently ranked alongside blue berries and green tea for its nutritional benefits.

Some people might find it a bit cumbersome to deal with the little seeds, which is why, extracting its juice is the best way to utilize the benefits of pomegranate juice. Drinking it allows for a quick and easy assimilation of all the nutrients found in the bloodstream by the body. In comparison to other fruits, pomegranates contain the maximum amount of anti-oxidants. It contains approximately 3 times more antioxidants than green tea and oranges.

Freshly squeezed pomegranate juice, being completely unprocessed, triumphs over packaged juice any day, as it retains the maximum number of vitamins. Make sure that the juice is unsweetened as sugar being inflammatory can counteract some of the health benefits of this fruit.

Nutritional Value Of Pomegranate:

Pomegranate is a great source of ellagic acid, and antioxidant and punicic acid, an omega 5 polyunsaturated fatty acid which is highly beneficial for cell regeneration and proliferation. The juice of this fruit is an exceptional source of vitamin A, C and E and minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, potassium, iron, folic acid, niacin, thiamin, folates and riboflavin.

Health Benefits of Pomegranate Juice:

Pomegranate has been used for medicinal purposes in the middle and Far East regions for over thousands of years. It was used as a tonic to heal ailments like ulcers and diarrhea. The juice of pomegranate contains antioxidants like anthocyanin and ellagic acid, compounds like gallic acids, and flavonoids like quercetin which offer protection from diabetes, heart diseases, osteoarthritis and several kinds of cancer.

1. Pomegranate Juice Improves Your Heart Health:

Pomegranate juice can have a great impact on health, particularly on the health of the heart, by keeping the arteries flexible and decreasing the inflammation in the lining of the blood vessels. It is known to reduce atherosclerosis, which is one of the leading causes of heart disease. It lowers the risk of blockage in the arteries which can cause a restriction in the flow of blood to the heart and brain. In other words it has an anti-atherogenic effect on the heart.  It lowers the amount of LDL or bad cholesterol that is retained in the body and increases the amount of good cholesterol or HDL.

2. Pomegranate Juice Maintains Your Blood Sugar Levels:

Although pomegranate juice contains fructose, it does not elevate the blood sugar levels as other fruit juices do. Studies have shown that there was no significant increase in the blood sugar level of diabetic patients who drank this juice daily for a period of 2 weeks.

3. Pomegranate Juice Maintains Your Blood Pressure:

Pomegranates are also known to reduce high blood pressure. The juice reduces lesions and the inflammation of blood vessels in heart patients. It is a natural aspirin, which keeps the blood from coagulating and forming blood clots. It even acts as a blood thinner allowing for an unrestricted flow of blood through the body.

4. Pomegranate Juice Reduces Risk Of Cancer:

Pomegranate juice eliminates free radicals from the body and inhibits the growth and development of cancer and other diseases. Its high contents of anti- oxidants stimulate the white blood cells to neutralize toxins in the body thereby promoting a strong and healthy immune system. Pomegranate is believed to induce apoptosis, a process where the cells destroy themselves. Daily intake of a glass of pomegranate juice can slow down the growth of cancerous cells in prostate cancer. Moreover it appears to block aromatase, an enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen, a hormone which plays a crucial role in the development of breast cancer.

5. Pomegranate Juice Helps In Treating Diarrhoea And Dysentery:

Pomegranate juice is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery as it plays a vital role in the secretion of enzymes which aids proper digestion. Mixing 1 teaspoon of honey in a glass of pomegranate juice is sure to cure indigestion problems.

6. Pomegranate Juice Boosts Your Immunity:

Pomegranate juice has strong anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties which help fight viruses and bacteria and boost our immunity system. It significantly reduces microbes that are found in the mouth commonly responsible for cavities and staph infections. Its anti-microbial properties make it an inhibitor of HIV transmission. Out of all the fruits, pomegranate has the highest potential to inhibit the transmission of HIV.

7. Pomegranate Juice Prevents Anaemia:

Anaemia is a condition caused by the deficiency of red blood cells in the body. Since pomegranate juice contains ample amount of iron it helps in surmounting the red blood cell deficiency in the body. Mixing some candied sugar in pomegranate juice and introducing a couple of drops in the nostrils is a quick fix to control nose bleeds. It is an excellent remedy for red or sore eyes and falling eye lashes.

8. Pomegranate Juice Helps With Digestion:

Pomegranate juice aids in the smooth functioning of the stomach, heart and liver. This juice induces hunger and can even control thirst. Therefore it is a great choice of drink during summers. It also soothes urinary tract infection and eases the flow of urine. The high amount of dietary fiber, both soluble and insoluble in pomegranate juice helps to improve digestion and regulate bowel movement. Since it has no saturated fats or cholesterol, it is highly recommended for those aiming to lose weight.

9. Pomegranate Juice Helps In Cartilage Regeneration:

Pomegranate juice acts as an inhibiter on enzymes that are responsible for damaging the cartilage. It is therefore highly recommended for patients suffering from osteoarthritis, a chronic condition characterized by the breakdown of the joint’s cartilage. Studies conducted have proved the application of this juice to reduce deterioration of the cartilage. Unsweetened pomegranate juice relieves symptoms of arthritis and bone inflammation. A regular intake of this juice may curb the onset of neurological problems like Alzheimer disease. It is also known to dissolve kidney stones and cures erectile dysfunction in men.

10. Pomegranate Juice Is Beneficial During Prenatal Care:

Pomegranate juice is extremely beneficial for pregnant women. It is a great source of a number of vitamins and minerals including folic acid which is a crucial element of a prenatal diet. The anti-inflammatory property of pomegranate juice ensures a healthy blood flow, which is essential for the overall development of the foetus. The potassium content in this juice can also help prevent leg cramps that are generally associated with pregnancy. When consumed regularly by expectant mothers, it is known to lower the risk of premature child birth or birth of babies with low birth weight.

Skin Benefits of Pomegranate Juice:

Pomegranate juice, can be a secret potion to get a healthy, vibrant and youthful skin.

11. Pomegranate Juice Is An Excellent Anti-Aging Agent:

A diet high in pomegranate juice can help to slow down the process of ageing by reducing wrinkles and fine lines caused by constant exposure to sun. It also helps to sustain the regeneration of the skin cells and prevents hyper pigmentation and occurrence of dark spots.

12. Pomegranate Juice Suits All Skin Types:

Pomegranate juice works wonders for dry skin. Its small molecular structure penetrates deeply into the skin to provide ample moisturisation and hydration to the skin. Thus it soothes dry and irritated skin. Its content of punicic acid, an omega 3 fatty acid keeps the skin constantly hydrated by sealing in the moisture. Pomegranate juice is beneficial for oily and pimple prone skin too. Application of pomegranate juice on oily skin prevents the outbreak of pimples and controls the production of sebum.

13. Pomegranate Juice Helps In Healing Scars:

Pomegranate helps in the regeneration of cells in the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin. It has an ability to hasten the process of healing of wounds. Even the oil of pomegranate seeds is loaded with skin friendly nutrients which are beneficial for the strengthening and regeneration of the epidermis. It also protects the skin from sun burns and heals the damage caused to the skin due to constant exposure to the sun.

14. Pomegranate Juice Improves Your Skin Texture:

Pomegranates are also known to extend the life of fibroblasts which are responsible for the production of collagen and elastin that tighten the skin and prevent the formation of fine lines and wrinkles. Collagen and elastin provide strength and support to the skin. When the fibers of collagen and elastin break down, the skin develops laxity which causes wrinkles and jowls. Pomegranate is also very useful for lightening the skin tone. Drinking a glass of pomegranate juice daily gives a fair and glowing skin tone.

15. Pomegranate Face Mask For Glowing Skin:

Mix 1 teaspoon each of powdered green papaya, grape seed oil, and grape seed extract with 2 teaspoons of pomegranate juice and apply it on the face. Leave it on for about an hour and wash it off with lukewarm water.

You can also use a cotton ball to apply pomegranate juice directly on the face after cleansing.

16. Pomegranate Juice Prevents Skin Cancer:

Pomegranate contains anthocyanins and hydrolysable tannins which possess strong anti-oxidant and anti-tumor promoting properties. When applied directly on the skin, ellagic acid, a polyphenol antioxidant found in pomegranates inhibits the growth of cancer of the skin.

Hair Benefits Of Pomegranate Juice:

17. Pomegranate Juice Prevents Hair Fall:

Drinking pomegranate juice regularly strengthens the hair follicles which in turn prevent hair fall, thus giving the hair a healthy and lustrous appearance.


Some Precautions to be Exercised:

Pomegranate juice is not recommended for people suffering from influenza, cough, and constipation or for those with a phlegmatic condition.
Pomegranate juice has certain antioxidants that lower the blood pressure. Therefore, consumption of this juice in combination with medication prescribed to lower blood pressure can result in a condition with dangerously low blood pressure, known as hypotension.
People with certain plant allergies and asthma are always at a greater risk of developing an allergic reaction to this fruit. General allergic reactions include, vomiting, red itchy eyes, hives and difficulty in breathing.
Just like grapefruits, pomegranate is also known to interfere with some medicines, particularly those to lower cholesterol levels known as statins. It can also interfere with antidepressants, medication for AIDS and narcotic pain relievers.
Drinking one glass of pomegranate juice is all that is needed to experience the advantages of pomegranate juice. It is never too late to add this miracle juice to your daily diet plan as the amount of benefits that you would reap definitely outweighs the drawbacks.

Now is the time to include this fruit juice in your diet. 

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Uses and Problems of Hydrocarbons

Uses:
A hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. The hydrocarbons are the most broadly used organic compounds known, and are quite literally the driving force of western civilization. The greatest amounts of hydrocarbons are used as fuel for combustion, particularly in heating and motor fuel applications. The primary components of natural gas are methane and ethane. We are all familiar with the use of propane in gas barbecues, lanterns, and as a fuel for internal combustion engines and heating systems. Butane is also a readily available fuel, familiar to everyone in the form of the pocket lighter.
With pentane, the saturated hydrocarbons enter the realm of room-temperature liquids. This makes them useful as organic solvents, cleaners, and transport fuels. Petrol (Gasoline) for internal combustion engines in cars, trucks, tractors, lawnmowers, and so on, is rated in combustion properties relative to octane. It is in fact a combination of liquid hydrocarbons ranging from hexanes to decanes. Slightly larger hydrocarbons are known as kerosene or jet fuel, diesel fuel and heating oil. Still larger hydrocarbon molecules serve as lubricating oils, and greases. Eventually a point is reached at which the materials are solids at room temperature. These are the waxes. Hydrocarbon molecules larger than those of the waxes are the heavy greases and the tars commonly used in roofing applications and highway construction.
Most hydrocarbons are generated from the thermal 'cracking' and fractional distillation of crude oil. Another major source is the industrial alteration of ethanol to produce ethylene. The ethylene so produced becomes a feedstock for the industrial synthesis of other hydrocarbons up to and including polyethylene.

Problems:
Environmental Problems Associated With the Combustion of Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons are burned, or combusted, primarily in engines, power plants and heating systems. Known more commonly as fossil fuels, the hydrocarbons humans burn are coal, natural gas and petroleum products. If combustion were 100 percent efficient and all hydrocarbons contained only hydrogen and carbon, the sole byproducts would be water and carbon dioxide. There are unintended waste products, however, and they cause environmental harm. Even carbon dioxide, which is a natural part of the atmosphere, becomes a pollutant when released in excessive amounts. The environmental liabilities associated with hydrocarbons provide incentives for the development of alternative energy sources.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
The incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, especially coal and diesel fuel, causes the release of altered hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbon pollutants, known collectively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, take a variety of forms. Some are quite toxic, known to harm aquatic life and cause cancer.
Oxides of Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphur

Incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons also results in carbon monoxide pollution. An odorless, colorless gas, carbon monoxide causes headaches and complications for people with heart disease. Carbon dioxide is always released when hydrocarbons are burned. It is a leading cause of global climate change and the acidification of oceans. Combustion of oil and coal, in particular, causes the release of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. These oxides combine with water and oxygen in the atmosphere, creating nitric and sulfuric acids, which return to Earth's surface as acid deposition, or "acid rain." Acid deposition harms aquatic organisms and kills trees. Because it makes certain nutrients, such as calcium and phosphorus, less available to plants, it reduces the productivity of ecosystems and farms. An additional problem associated with nitrogen oxides is that they, along with hydrocarbon pollutants, contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone, a major component of smog.