Tuesday, February 19, 2013

Forms of Communication


Types of Communication

(1) Letter: This is used for correspondence generally.

(2) Office Memorandum: This is generally used for correspondence with other Divisions or in calling for information from or conveying information to employees. This is also used in communicating instructions/decisions in certain cases. It is written in the third person and bears no salutation except the name and designation of the officer signing it.

(3) Demi-Official letter: It is also called DO letter or DO. (It is not Dummy Official letter)
(a) This is generally used in correspondence between Officers to supplement or explain matter which has been referred officially or is proposed to be referred officially.
Demi-official correspondence may also be used not merely to supplement, but in place of official
correspondence, in cases of extreme secrecy, where it is considered necessary to run no risk and in certain classes of personal questions, and occasionally in cases of urgency or importance for inviting the personal attention of the Officer concerned;
(b) It is to be written in the first person in a personal and friendly tone and it should be addressed by an officer who is ordinarily not more than one or two levels below the Officer to whom such communication is addressed. Such letters should not be more than a page or two in 1.5 space.
(c) When instructions, which should be on record have been given in the first instance demi-officially, they should be supplemented by an official letter. Similarly, when a demi-official letter has been used instead of an official letter because of urgency, a supplementary official communication should be sent if the information is ought to be an official record. This procedure must invariably be complied with;
(d) Demi-official correspondence should not be quoted in official communications or be noticed officially in any way;

(4) Inter-departmental note: This is generally used for obtaining advice, views, concurrence or
comments of other Divisions/Sections or Departments on a proposal or in seeking clarification of the existing rules, instructions, etc. This form can be used in either of the following ways:-
(a) by sending the file itself with a note recorded thereon; or (b) by sending a self-contained note or memorandum.

(5) Memorandum: This is used for conveying information, calling for explanation, etc. not amounting to an order to subordinate authorities. This system is particularly applicable to urgent cases.

(6) Office order: This is normally used for issuing instructions meant for internal administration, e.g., grant of regular leave, distribution of work among officers and sections, holidays and other orders of general nature.

(7) Order: This is generally used for issuing certain types of financial sanctions and for
communicating Orders in disciplinary cases, etc., to the officials concerned.

(8) Notification: This is mostly used in notifying the promulgation of statutory Rules and
Orders, election of Members, vacation of seats, appointments and promotions etc., through publication.

(9) Endorsement: (a) This is made use of when a paper is returned in original to the sender or is
referred to another department or subordinate office for information, remarks or disposal, or where a copy of a communication is to be forwarded to others in addition to the original addressee.
(b) Copies of financial sanctions where required to be communicated to the audit authorities are also sent by means of an endorsement.

 (10) Telegram: This is used for communicating with out-station offices/parties in matters of
urgency demanding prompt attention, when fast airmail, speed post, telex and E-mail services are not available.

(11) Express letters/savingram: This is used in communicating with out-station offices and
parties in matters warranting urgent attention at the receiving end but not justifying the expense of a telegram. It is worded exactly like a telegram but transmitted through a post office instead of a telegraph office.

(12) Fax: This mode of communication is used when copy of the signed ommunication is required to be sent so urgently that it cannot await postal service. This facility is available only for addresses who have fax facilities and it enables transmission of the letter/communication like a photo-copy at the other end. It is particularly useful in conveying drawings, diagrams, etc. or where an individual’s writing or signatures need to be transmitted. It is also now increasingly being used in order to reduce the typing work involved in telex/E-mail but this should not be encouraged when Telex or E-Mail is possible as fax to outstation locations uses STD lines and is a comparatively expensive mode of communication.

(13) E-Mail: Email facility uses computers and the users are linked through satellite. Transmission is Instantaneous. It can be availed free of cost. E-mail of routine communication is now-a-days encouraged as a replacement for written communication.

(14) Telephone: (a) appropriate use of telephone may be made for intra and inter-departmental consultation and for communication of information between offices, and parties situated locally.
(b) In matters of urgency, one may communicate with out-station offices/organisations also over the telephone. Fixed line, Land line, mobile phones are varieties.
(c) Some organisations use Radio Telephones (R/T).

(15) Press Communiqué/Note: This is used when it is proposed to give wide publicity to a
decision or an event. It is more formal in character than a Press note and is expected to be reproduced intact by the Press. A Press note, on the other hand, is intended to serve as a handout to the Press, which may edit, compress or enlarge it, as deemed fit.

(16) Circular: This is used when important and urgent external communications received or
important and urgent decisions taken internally have to be circulated within the organisation for information and compliance by employees.

(17) Advertisement: This is used for communicating with public in General.

(18) Notice: This is used for communicating to Members regarding meetings of the Committees.

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